Correlation Versus Causation

Correlation Versus Causation
If correlation does not imply causation, what does it imply? Are there ever any circumstances when a correlation can be interpreted as evidence for a causal connection between two variables? If yes, what circumstances?

Required Readings
Use your Warner text, Applied Statistics: From Bivariate Through Multivariate Techniques, to complete the following:

Read Chapter 7, “Bivariate Pearson Correlation,” pages 261–314. This chapter addresses the following topics:
Assumptions of Pearson’s r.
Preliminary data screening for Pearson’s r.
Statistical significance tests for Pearson’s r.
Factors influencing the magnitude and sign of Pearson’s r.
Effect-size indexes.
Interpretation of Pearson’s r values.
Read Chapter 8, “Alternative Correlation Coefficients,” pages 315–343. This chapter addresses the following topics:
Correlations for rank or ordinal scores.
Correlations for true dichotomies.
Correlations for artificial dichotomies.
Chi-square test of association.
Jia, Y., Konold, T. R., & Cornell, D. (2015). Authoritative school climate and high school dropout rates. School Psychology Quarterly. doi:10.1037/spq0000139

Anderson, C. A., & Bushman, B. J. (2001). Effects of violent video games on aggressive behavior, aggressive cognition, aggressive affect, physiological arousal, and prosocial behavior: A meta-analytic review of the scientific literature. Psychological Science, 12(5), 353–359.