Training and Development

Student #1

Reply must be at least 500 words and include a biblical integration and at least 2 peer-reviewed source citations in current APA format.

Training and Development

One of the most important responsibilities of the human resource management (HRM) professional in the health care field is training and development. Training and development provides the skills, competencies, and knowledge to employees allowing for the health care organization to meet the “constantly changing and increasing demands for high-quality health care” (Pynes & Lombardi, 2011, p. 290). Training is an important function that can benefit the entire organization in a multitude of ways including raising awareness and sensitivity to relationship dynamics (improving both employee to employee relationships and employee to customer-patient relationships), increasing the professional capabilities of all employees (resulting in greater effectiveness and efficiency throughout the organization), and significantly eliminating mistakes in the delivery of care (Pynes & Lombardi, 2011). Development prepares the employees for the future by providing the knowledge and skills necessary for long-term advancement and job opportunities within the organization (Pynes & Lombardi, 2011). Training and development are certainly an important element necessary for improving and maintaining quality health care.

Medical errors account for approximately 98,000 deaths per year in the United States and increase health care costs, patient morbidity and mortality, and decrease public confidence in the health care system (Pham, Aswani, Rosen, Lee, Huddle, Weeks, & Pronovost, 2012). Of these medical errors, almost two-thirds are associated with surgical care (de Vries, Prins, Crolla, den Outer, van Andel, Helden, & Smorenburg, 2010). Although most surgical teams deliver their care to the best of their ability it is not uncommon for patients to be accidentally injured while under their care (Catchpole, Dale, Hirst, Smith, & Giddings, 2010). HRM professionals must recognize the importance of developing and implementing effective and appropriate training and development programs for their surgical teams to improve care and decrease, and potentially eliminate, surgical errors.

According to Pynes & Lombardi (2011) one effective method of training is the use of virtual reality which is a “computer-based technology that provides trainees with a three-dimensional learning experience” (p. 300). Although the use of simulation, a type of virtual reality, is relatively new in surgical education, it has been widely used for decades in other areas such as in the military and in aviation (Satava, 2007) and research has found that the skills acquired from this type of training are transferable to the operative setting (Sturm, Windsor, Cosman, Cregan, Hewett, & Maddern, (2008). According to Bruppcher et al (2010), “Compared with traditional interactive seminars, simulation-based training leads to improved performance in patient care by senior trainees in anesthesiology” (p. 985).

Developmental strategies that could be effective for the surgical team would be team building activities. Nearly every area of the health care field is operated by teams of employees working together. Developing programs that will build interdependence among team members and foster pride, accountability, commitment, and trust within the team will be beneficial to the team dynamics (Pynes & Lombardi, 2011). The surgical team is a complex choregraphing of a variety of professionals who must work with precise efficiency (Forse, Branble, & McQuillan, 2011), requiring team members to possess all of the above-mentioned qualities in order to perform effectively. Although there is a need for further research in this area regarding team training for surgical staff, Forse et al (2011) found that team training did improve performance in the operating room. For their particular study they utilized the TeamSTEPPS program, which is a program founded on evidence-based techniques, was designed for health care professionals, and is robust enough to use at multiple levels (Forse et al, 2011). A top down approach was used, training the Chair of Anesthesiology, Chair of Surgery, the Operating Room Director, and the Administrative Manager of Operative Services to be instructors (Forse et al, 2011). Team-building can be used simultaneously in a developmental role and as a training strategy and, considering the importance of teamwork in the health care field, could prove to be a financially viable option especially for a larger organization.

In discussing training and development for a health care organization the verse in Colossians 3:23 comes to mind where Paul exhorts believers to remember that whatever they do, they are to do it the best of their ability as if it is being accomplished for God and not for man (NASB). Wanting all of the employees of the organization to be able to work to the best of their ability is a goal and aspiration for any competent HRM professional. Providing the training and development activities necessary for the fulfillment of this goal is a big responsibility, but one that will certainly benefit the progressive and innovative health care organization allowing for a smooth transition into the future.


Bruppacher, H. R., Alam, S. K., LeBlanc, V. R., Latter, D., Naik, V. N., Savoldelli, G. L., … & Joo, H. S. (2010). Simulation-based training improves physicians’ performance in patient care in high-stakes clinical setting of cardiac surgery. Anesthesiology: The Journal of the American Society of Anesthesiologists, 112(4), 985-992.

Catchpole, K. R., Dale, T. J., Hirst, D. G., Smith, J. P., & Giddings, T. A. (2010). A multicenter trial of aviation-style training for surgical teams. Journal of Patient Safety, 6(3), 180-186.

de Vries, E. N., Prins, H. A., Crolla, R. M., den Outer, A. J., van Andel, G., van Helden, S. H., … & Smorenburg, S. M. (2010). Effect of a comprehensive surgical safety system on patient outcomes. New England Journal of Medicine, 363(20), 1928-1937.

Forse, R. A., Bramble, J. D., & McQuillan, R. (2011). Team training can improve operating room performance. Surgery, 150(4), 771-778.

Pham, J. C., Aswani, M. S., Rosen, M., Lee, H., Huddle, M., Weeks, K., & Pronovost, P. J. (2012). Reducing medical errors and adverse events. Annual Review of Medicine, 63, 447-463.

Pynes, J. E., & Lombardi, D. N. (2011). Human resources management for health care organizations: A strategic approach. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Satava, R. M. (2008). Historical review of surgical simulation—A personal perspective. World Journal of Surgery, 32(2), 141-148.