Discuss the role of federal legislation in accelerating and shaping the course of westward expansion

Running head: HISTORY HOMEWORK 18

History homework



Question one

1. Discuss the role of federal legislation in accelerating and shaping the course of westward expansion

In 1862, a law was passed under Homestead Act and Dawes Act of 1887, led to the support of transcontinental railroad construction and federal government regulation legislation of timber and water usage which urged people to migrate westward. Like Dawes Act sought to replace the communal ownership of land to private plots of land to the Native Americans. The government regulation of resources like the timber and water in the west made people migrate to the west.

2. How did the incorporation of western territories into United States affect Indian nations such as the Sioux or the Nez Perce? Discuss the consequences of the Indian wars. Discuss the significance of reservation policy and the Dawes severalty act for tribal life

The discovery of valuable minerals like gold and silver which made people migrate to the westwards thereby bringing in settlers which resulted in violent confrontation by the Indians nations such as The Sioux and Nez Perces who did not want the push to reservations by the government which made the government to use US army which defeated them and gave in later. The Dawes Act advocated for private property on reservations from communal ownership which had over sixty percent of land taken by whites from Indians reserved land.

3. What were some of the major technological advances in mining and in agriculture that promoted development of western economy

The technology advancement in mining was the hydraulic mining and on agriculture was the “singing plow” and the McCormick reaper. In mining, the new technology allowed deep mining of the earth at a relatively cheaper economic cost, while on the agriculture, it allowed the farmers to plow and harvest large acreage of land with the constant number of labor.

4. Describe the unique features of Mexicano communities in the south-west before and after the mass immigration of the Anglos. How did changes in the economy affect the patterns of labor and status of women in these communities

The Mexicano communities in the southwest before mass immigration occupied the borderland which is between Mexico and United States. Initially, they worked maintaining their unique identity. During immigration where there was a rise of local elites among them both who were the Anglo and Mexicano lead to exiling of the poor Mexican out. The changes in the economy made them look for seasonal labor in the elite farms and ranches and others sought railroad and mining industries jobs. The women experienced domestic violence and only women from elite families were married to immigrants from United States for land possessions.

5. What role did the Homestead Act play in the western expansion? How did farm families on the Great Plains divide chores among their members? What factors determined the likelihood of likelihood of economic success or failures

The families that moved west, in 1882 through the Homestead Act they were offered 160 acres of land as an incentive. This made those who own the railroad companies owning best land the west offered. On other hand, homesteaders found themselves in the difficult struggle with the harsh climate and poor soil conditions for agriculture. This, in turn, made them toil the land with vigor and hard work from early morning to late evening. The status leads to the men focusing on laboring on the field on all seasons, caring for livestock at off-peak periods in the seasons and also working in the construction for extra money. The women were responsible for the house chores of cleaning and cooking, gathering of fruits and vegetables. Despite all the hard work and responsible behavior as factors of success and failure, other actors were the climate condition; soil condition had a fate in a survival of a family.

6. Describe the responses of artists, naturalist, and conservationist to the western landscape. How did their photographs, paintings, and stories shape and perceptions of the west in the east?

The artistic work of making people crave more since they showed a projected divine aura of majestic west from the landscapes of mountains ranges, extensive rivers and long grasses waving meadows and Photograph by Bill Cody which captured the attention of people with will west showcasing cowboys and famous Annie Oakley performing stunts with pistols and lassoes.

7. How can the history of the American West be told as the creation of new communities and displacement of old communities?

The story can be told as The West as myth and legend Indian People under Siege. The Indians living west of the Mississippi River intensely touched the compression of the steady amalgamation of the West into the American nation. Throughout the 1860s, Congress approved territorial position to Utah, New Mexico, Washington, Dakota, Colorado, Nevada, Arizona, Idaho, Montana, and Wyoming.

Question two

1. discuss the sources of economic growth in the decades after the civil war. Historians often refer to this period as the era of the “second industrial revolution.” Do you agree with this description?

In the decades after the civil war, the American economy expanded with the development of new technology which promoted production and distribution. For perfect distribution to occur, railroads were essential, this thereby was focused on becoming the main economic growth engine. I agree with the description of the era as the second industrial revolution since their production was mechanized using resources such as the wood, iron, and coal to push industrial growth.

2. Describe the impact of new technologies and new forms of production on the routines of industrial workers. How did these changes affect African American and women workers in particular? What role did trade unions play in this process?

The impact of the new technologies leads to industrial workers having a new environment where they were constantly supervised as the production moved from the skilled craft where they were autonomy enjoyed. Others exposed them to the dangerous environment like the meatpacking. New sources of employment were development was introduced like the typewriting, secretary and clerical jobs for the female workers. Meanwhile on the African Americans were barred from new trades which were claimed by European immigrants. American Federation of labor comes in to fight for workers in the workplace after knights of labor failed to challenge the wage system.

3. Discuss the role of northern capital in the development of the new south. How did the rise of industry affect the lives of rural southerners? Analyze these changes from the point of view of African Americans.

The northerners in the new development of the south got concessions to construct factories and railroads since they were still dependent on the northern investment even though they were still lagging behind the north in terms of development. After the civil war, saw the farms of the rural area labor transformed to factory labor where the southerners sought opportunities at the Piedmont mill towns. The low paying jobs which needed not skills were limited to the African Americans men while the women were for the domestic labor. The black members were rejected by the trade unions.

4. How did urban life change during the Gilded Age? How did economic development affect residential patterns? How did the middle class aspire to live during the Gilded Age? How did their lifestyles compare with those of working-class urbanites?

In the Gilded Age, there was an enormous growth of cities in all directions both in outwards and inwards, the crowded tenement buildings were frequently crowded by the immigrants. New York City would have more than 700 people packed in a single acre in the turn of the century. The middle class in the Gilded Age moved to the suburbs due to the availability of transportations options such as streetcars to avoid the pollution and overcrowding.

5. How did the American educational system change to prepare children for their adult roles in the new industrial economy?

The school enrollment became more popular towards the end of 19th century; public high schools were more common despite being reserved for the middle-class children. The expansion of education like the vocational schools promoted the women by preparing them or clerical jobs. Additionally, women colleges and universities offered an education to women similar to men’s institutions. The children attending school had options available to them determined by their gender, race, and class.

6. How did the rise of organized sports and commercial amusements reflect and shape social divisions at the end of the century? Which groups were affected most (or least) by new leisure activities?

The view about leisure differed with the different class in the society. The working class perceived leisure as they wanted a place for sports, picnics and other activities to avoid congestion in the streets of the city while the middle class enjoyed the parks which prohibited picnics and walking on the grass. This made the working class most affected. This led to a rise of new entertainments like baseball and vaudeville which breached the gaps between the two middle and working-class patrons.

Question three

1. Discuss the tensions within progressivism between the ideals of social justice and the urge for social control. What is a concrete achievement associated with each wing of the movement? What were the driving forces behind them?

The ideals of social justice would advocate for the improved lives reforms of people in lower class Americans, having a limitation to the child labor, involved the political reforms of transparency and accountability, working for ten hour a day for workers and having settlement houses while the social control dealt with the issues threatening the Americas democratic traditions due to rise of the cities and the mass immigration worried the reformers. The prominent campaign of these efforts is the anti-prostitution promotion and campaigns.

2. Describe the different manifestations of progressivism at the local state and national levels. To what extent did progressives redefine the role of the state in American politics?

In the local level, the progressive emphasized on the administrative control of public services to have a good government provide cleaning of streets and other services. On a state level, they focused on the having direct primary instead of nomination of candidates. They reformed on having a cheaper cost of shipping in the railroads. Nationwide, progressives like presidents Theodore Roosevelt and Woodrow Wilson carried out reforms to the nation. They won reputation out of it. Roosevelt won trustbuster for modifiable monopolies and trusts that disobeyed the authority of the federal government. They regulated drugs and food to standards. Wilson also presented the opening National Income Tax although regulating more industries and restructuring the banking system.

3. How did workers use their own values and communities to restrain the power of large corporations during the progressive era?

Workers defied giant business by establishing new unions under the sponsorships of the AFL and the IWW. Strikes by workers demonstrated to be more fruitful than some preceding campaigns as wages better-quality in some industries. Furthermore, workers progressively prearranged to prove their political power at the local and state level

4. How did the era’s new immigration reshape America’s cities and workplace? What connections can you draw between the new immigrant experience and progressive era politics?

To gain employment by the immigrant communities in the factories and other industries, they made use of ethnicity. The immigrants got a preserve in the backbreaking work in the industry, others like Mexico, Japan, and Asia immigrants increased despite being denied citizenship because of race. The progressive reformers improved the immigrants living conditions in the ghettos which were horrible. This made them worry about the introduction of the new culture which was introduced to them like religion and alcohol use.

5. Analyze the progressive era from the perspective of African Americans. What political and social development were most crucial and what legacies did they leave?

The African Americans in the progressive era reforms were ignored. This made them being denied the opportunities of voting in the racist popular culture. This lead to a rise of new black organizations e.g. the NAACP under their leader W. E. B. DuBois, who was influential. This promoted the racial uplift and started some new ways of challenging the white supremacy.

6. How do the goals, methods, and language of progressives still find the voice in contemporary America?

Progressive-type reforms are still seen nowadays, particularly in grassroots reform focus to endorse social uplift. These efforts, though, still suffer from alterations over the appropriate role and scope of government regulation, the capability of the giant business to form reform efforts, and the bounds of public emphasis on such issues. Still, demands to progress public education, progress basic housing and the discussion over health care can all be drawn to the progressive era.

Question four

1. What central issues drew the United States deeper into international politics in the early years of the century? How did American presidents justify a more expansive role? What diplomatic and military policies did they exploit for these ends

The central issues that led American foreign policy using collective economic growth and military influence. Whereas appealing pomposity about America’s pledge to moralism and its God-given hero as a world power, leaders like President Teddy Roosevelt exploited an amalgamation of military strength and clandestine contracts to protect foreign policy goals. Abetting American businesses and foreign investment was the greatest significant goal of American foreign policy.

2. Compare the arguments for and against American participation in the great war. Which Americans were most likely to support entry? Which were more likely to oppose it?

America originally wanted to continue being neutral as World War I commenced in Europe in August 1914. Nevertheless, close economic ties amongst the United States and Allied Powers ended true neutrality unbearable to attain. Alternatively, a majority of Americans had migrated from countries of the Central Powers, particularly Germany and Ireland (Faragher, 1997). Even though some criticizers persisted, predominantly individuals from the women’s movement, furthermost liberals and progressives maintained the war as a means of auxiliary social alteration.

3. How did mobilizing for war change the economy and its relationship to government? Which of these changes, if any, spilled over to the postwar years?

The country was unified through the war which was emphasized during mobilization. The economy involvement in the mobilization was a necessity. Price controls and war profits were balanced by the war industries for the standardization of production and improved efficiency for lower costs. War production enthused American businesses in the direction of corporatism, while labor was acknowledged as a junior partner in the war exertion. Government adjudication empowered unions to lock in the long-fought-for improvements and additions to the respect of the AFL while discouragement more fundamental labor groups like the IWW.

4. How did the war affect political life in the United States? What techniques were used to stifle dissent? What was the war’s political legacy?

In 1917, The Espionage Act provided firm penalties for supporting the enemy, intrusive with the armed services or encouraging rebelliousness among troops. The implementation of the Espionage Act ultimately led to the formation of the FBI, as government police powers extended melodramatically. In addition, suppression of texts painstaking to be treasonous was allowable. General, the government gagged a wide range of nonconformists throughout the war years.

5. Analyze the impact of the war on American workers. How did the conflict affect the lives of African Americans and women?

The influence and respect of prearranged labor grew throughout the war years, as AFL President Samuel Gompers was pleased with more neutral government boldness on labor relations in a discussion for his support of the war. More fundamental labor groups like the IWW, though, got themselves relegated in their exertions to unionize unskilled workforces. African Americans go on board on the Great Migration looking for to take the lead of the economic opportunities engendered by the mobilization for war. Though they predictable better-living conditions as well, northern cities swiftly became rigidly separated like the South. African Americans also helped in isolated military units and by war’s end, in excess of 200,000 served in France. An extra one million women mutual the workforce throughout the war years and many others helped in military auxiliaries for the first time. The war also strapped the women’s suffrage movement to achievement, as the nationwide movement and greater gratitude of women’s influence to the war exertion controlled to the channel of the Twentieth Amendment in August 1920.

6. What principles guide Woodrow Wilson’s fourteen points? How would you explain the united states’ failure to ratify the treaty of Versailles?

Wilson’s Fourteen Points highlighted the formation of new nations beyond the Austro-Hungarian Empire on the foundation of countrywide self-government. They also endorsed more frankness in transnational diplomacy, unrestricted trade and steering and arms control treaties. Finally, Wilson projected a League of Nations where countries could practice diplomacy in its place of force to resolve disagreements. Though Wilson anticipated the Fourteen Points to be the foundation for a permanent peace in Europe, Britain and particularly France were additional strongminded to see Germany castigated and answerable for opening the war. At home, Republicans protested to the League of Nations, demanding it imperfect the nation’s aptitude to hunt an independent foreign policy, and notwithstanding an outdoor effort by Wilson to advance backing, the Senate forbidden the League and not once signed the peace agreement.

Question five

1. Discuss some of the problems accompanying the expansion of government during the late nineteenth century. What role did political parties play in this process? Explain how a prominent reformer such as James Garfield might become a leading machine politician

During the end of the nineteenth century, there was urging of expanding the government, as it had grown rapidly during the urbanization and industrialization age. There was demand for public safety, better education, and public works. The political loyalties dominated the political machinery chiefly determined by race, religion, and ethnicity. These forced members in parties through patronage system to succumb and offer loyalist in a party in order to maintain political power like President Garfield.

2. What were the major causes and consequences of the populist movement of the 1880s and 1890s? Why did the elections of 1896 prove so important to the future of American politics?

The populist movement was formed due to economic uncertainties, increasing estrangement from the urban east and falling prices to give a political voice to the farmers. They attempted in reforms like ownership of telegraph line and railroads by the government which was turned down. On the positive side ideas, for example, income tax was passed and endorsed. The 1896 election, resulted in the popular challenge to the political system and hard-pressed America to overseas expansion

3. Discuss the role of women in both the Grange and the peoples’ party. What were their specific goals?

Female activists aided in establishing both labor and agrarian social activities and developed significant leaders and spokeswomen for these activists. Additionally, these assemblies aided to offshoot the development of additional women’s activists for suffrage.

4. Discuss the causes and consequences of the financial crisis of the 1890s. How did various reformers and politicians respond to the event? What kind of programs did they offer to restore the economy or reduce poverty?

The major financial depression in 1893 due to the agricultural prices which are falling, reduced overseas demand in the European economies as they were in turmoil and over the expansion of industries like railroads and tight credit. The unemployed workers in Washington, D.C. led by Jacob Coxey who demanded assistance by the federal to the economic crisis shocking. This forced the government to print additional backed by silver an action which resulted in tariff raise in order to protect American industry.

5. How did the exclusion of African Americans affect the outcome of populism? Explain the rise o Jim Crow legislation in the south and discuss its impact on the status of African Americans.

In 1896, only five percent of southern black participated in the election, this showed how the mass disenfranchisement of African Americans. This meant so much among the populism vote who could not participate. Legislation by Jim Crow imposed the segregation mostly notable through the Plessy v. Fergusson in 1896 in the south and left reminders to the black being inferior like in the restaurants and other social public establishments. There was a large difference between white students and black students in terms of resources.

6. Describe American foreign policy during the 1890s. Why did the United States intervene in Cuba and the Philippines? What were some of the leading arguments for and against overseas expansion?

In the 1890s American foreign policy engrossed to the Western Hemisphere, as European countries were struggling to colonize Asia and Africa. The main belief of American overseas development was a credence that the nation’s economy hinged on generating new marketplaces for American goods abroad. Credence in a diffusion of American principles of democracy and religion and a benevolent concern also donated to this foreign strategy. Some criticizers stimulating that free trade, not power, was the correct means of increasing the economy, although labor leaders dreaded an invasion of minority immigrants would grab jobs available.

Question six

1. How did various visions of a reconstructed south differ? How did these visions reflect the old political and social divisions that had led to the civil war?

President Lincoln expected to take the overpowered South back into the Union as fast as imaginable. He presented pardon to all those enthusiastic to take an oath of commitment and declared that state governments ought to be reinstituted when ten percent of the populace had taken the oath. Fundamental Republicans necessitated black equality, not just to finish of slavery, and that a popular of the population take the oath of commitment beforehand state governments were reinstated. President Johnson engrossed his blame on the container elite, exclusive of them from the new governments, but then captivating a slight attitude on rebuilding. Congressional opposition directed to his impeachment, which was botched by one vote. Nonetheless, the Radical Republicans held a veto-proof popular vote in the 1866 elections and executed much severer conditions for Reforms, as well as assurances of black equality in the South.

2. What key changes did emancipation make in the pollical and economic status of African Americans? Discuss the expansion of citizenship rights in the post-civil war years. To what extent did women share in the gains made by African Americans?

African Americans wriggled to make a new economic and political atmosphere for themselves throughout Rebuilding. This period signified a short-lived opportunity. Blacks aided in local, state, and national politics, and molded the essential of the Republican Party in the South. Economically, blacks wriggled to make available for their own families. They fought gang labor, anticipated by white landowners, wishing to be sharecroppers or tenants if they might not own land absolute. Nevertheless, the disappointment of the government to issue land to the former slaves was inadequate their economic prospects. Women, too who were vigorous in the abolitionist movement, grew unsatisfied that they were not assumed the voting rights sideways with African Americans.

3. What role did such institutions as the family, the church, the school, and the political parties play in the African American transition to freedom?

The black families through the emancipation were reunited and marriage among them became legal among thousands. Nevertheless, black people enjoyed the rights of citizenship; the gender equality that had been under slavery gave way to a supplementary traditional patriarchy. The black church was the greatest significant communal association for the African Americans. Individuals congregated to raise cash to acquire land and build churches all over the South, and they developed the focus of the civic, covering schools and accommodating political meetings, have a picnic and many other social activities. Entree to education in afresh opened schools developed the main means of opportunity and development. The Republican Party protected basic civil rights for blacks as well as backing for schools, but unsuccessful to convey about a better economic opportunity to blacks.

4. How did white southerners attempt to limit the freedom of former slaves? How did these efforts succeed, and how did they fail?

Whites fought black independence at every single opportunity they got. Originally numerous states approved black codes that required confining the civil and political rights of the freed slaves. Assemblies like the Ku Klux Klan exploited violence and terrorization to stop blacks from exercise their afresh won rights. Even though the federal government originally approved laws to contest domestic terrorism, they rapidly grew weary of the continuous essential for straight intervention in the South and white Southerners remained able to bound the political power of blacks.

5. Evaluate the achievement and failures of Reconstruction governments in the southern states

Reconstruction protected and ensured the freedom of former slaves and prohibited a reoccurrence to slavery. Black families were reunified, communal institutions like the church and genealogical societies, as well as schools, were in progress. These would make the nucleus of the black communal. For a short-lived time, African Americans contributed in the political development done to the Republican Party, nonetheless after some time they were marginalized as the South converted to a one-party state. Economically, rebuilding unsuccessfully to protected liberation for blacks who could not pay for land, but they did achieve to involve in sharecropping or occupant farming moderately than gang labor.

6. What were the crucial economic changes occurring in the north and south during the reconstruction era?

The south was transformed to the market-oriented agrarian economy during the reconstruction era. This is due to the horrible state of the economy because of war where they were denied credit and capital opportunity.


Faragher, J. M. (1997). Out of many: A history of the American people. Upper Saddle River, N.J: Prentice Hall.